Step-By-Step Instructions Of Painting


Amateur house painters didn't have as much help as today. Lots of new paints and equipment placed on the market in the last couple of years make it possible for the weekend handyman to color his own house as easily as a professional. From one-coat paints to disposable blowtorches, all things have been designed to increase the risk for job go faster, look better and price less.

With the new outside rollers, you'll be able to paint an average-size house over a couple of days. Add extra time handle and you can roll a terrace without stooping down, reach a roof covering without leaving the ground.

Painting Hard Spots

Specialized aids with built-in know, how tackle the difficult spots for you.

Better yet, you don't have to spend hours getting ready and hours cleaning up afterward. Premixed paints, electric-drill attachments and self-dispensing calking guns make short work of preparation. Cleaning up is a soap-and-water job for the rubber paints, or a quick dip in special cleaners to the oils. Disposable dropcloths and paper paint pails are widely-used once and dumped.

In this section are a few tips on techniques and tools which render it easier to paint your home than ever before - not what sort of "pro" does, perhaps, but with much the same results.

The word paint is used to include paints, varnishes, enamels, shellacs, lacquers, and stains.


• Paints are composed of mineral pigments, organic vehicles, and a variety of thinners all combined.
• Varnishes are resins dissolved in organic thinners.
• Enamels are pigmented varnishes.
• Shellac is lac gum dissolved in alcohol.
• Lacquers might be both pigmented or clear - the liquid portion usually is treated nitrocellulose dissolve in thinners.
• Stains could be pigmented oil or possibly a penetrating type.
Several of these materials, such as paints, varnishes, and lacquers, are formulated for specific purposes:
• Outside house paints and exterior varnishes are meant to give good service when exposed to weathering
• Interior wall paints are formulated to present excellent coverage and good wash-ability.
• Floor enamels are made to withstand abrasion.
• Lacquers are formulated for rapid drying.
• There are also formulas which provide extra self-cleaning, fume- resisting, waterproofing, hardening, flexibility, mildew-resisting, resistance to fading, and breathing qualities.

Interior paints are used to obtain pleasing decorative effects, improve sanitary conditions, and insure better lighting. These paints could possibly be divided into four types: wall primers; one-coat flats; flat, semigloss, and gloss; and water paints.

Wall primers or primer-sealers are designed to be applied directly to bare plaster, wallboard, and other porous surfaces to give a uniform, sealed surface for subsequent coats of paint. A standard wall primer might be made from varnish or bodied-oil vehicle and hiding pigments. It can be intended to penetrate only slightly into porous surfaces.

The primers are best applied with a wide wall brush.

One-coat flat paints are organic-solvent-thinned paints that will accomplish priming, sealing, and take care of coating in one operation. They are usually sold in thin paste form to ensure additional inexpensive thinner could possibly be added and mixed before application to increase the volume of paint by one-fourth or higher.

Flat, semigloss, and gloss interior paints and enamels vary in level of gloss, hiding power, as well as other properties. Paints giving the top hiding power are usually paints of lowest gloss, although some modern high-gloss enamels also have good hiding power.

Water-thinned interior paints are calcimine, casein, resin-emulsion, and gloss water paints. Calcimine is made up of powdered whiting and clay combined with an animal-glue binder along with a preservative. It cannot be recoated, but sometimes be easily washed off before redecorating.

You shouldn't have to remove casein before recoating but, if de-sired, it may be softened by washing with hot solutions of trisodium phosphate. Resin-emulsion paints, marketed in paste form, are to be thinned with water and, when properly made and applied, adhere well to plaster and offer a good decorative medium. They desire not be removed before redecorating, provided the film is in sound condition. This runs specifically true of gloss water paints.

New Paints Offer you Pro's Skill

Painting your property will be easier than ever - when you get the right paint. Yet it's going to be harder than ever before to pick it.

Years ago, paint was paint. One kind looked, smelled, was applied and finally dried much like another. The situation is different now. Besides oil paints, you can buy a new set of paints. It'll pay you to know about them.

• There are water paints you may use outside. (You clean your brushes under the faucet and use the garden hose to get spatters over shrubbery.)
• There are finishes so tough they withstand even attacks from the neighbors' children.
• There are paints that dry so quickly you start the second coat when you finish putting on the very first.
• There are colors in glittering confusion.

Not one product can do all these things. There are several types, all available within a variety of trade names. The trade names are, to put it kindly, confusing. For instance, two brands with the new paints use "rubber" inside their trade names, yet neither can be a rubber-latex paint and each is known as an entirely different kind of paint from the other. To get the right paint you need to read the fine print on the label and find out what exactly is actually inside the can.

Vinyl is a cousin to the tough plastic useful for upholstery and flooring, but it comes thinned with water ready that you should brush, roll or spray on. The label around the can may say vinyl, vinyl emulsion, polyvinyl acetate or PVA.

You may use vinyl on nearly every exterior except previously painted wood. It works fine on wood shingles and shakes, asbestos shingles, brick, stucco, concrete and masonry blocks. One manufacturer says you can even put it on wood clapboard if your clapboard is new and unprimed.

The major advantage of vinyl could be the thinner - water. You obtain all the advantages of easy cleanup which have renedered interior water paints popular.

Suppose it rains if you are working? Vinyl paint dries fast - you'd like 10 to Half an hour - and will withstand a shower after that time. It takes another 12 hours to "cure," at that same moment forming an exceptionally tough, long-lasting film that stacks up well against weather, sun, salt air and factory smoke.

One precaution: You can not paint with it in cold temperatures. The chemical reaction that transforms the water solution into a durable finish is not going to take place if the climate is below 50°. (Conventional oil paints don't stick well in cold temperature, either.)

Some manufacturers recommend their vinyl paints for interior and also exterior use; others refuse, not so good. You can find vinyls made specifically for interiors.

Definitely good inside the house is a new vinyl primer-sealer for use as a base coat under any paint. It dries after as little as 30 minutes.

You can put it around a place and probably follow immediately together with the finish coat. It is usually applied with brush or roller.

Acrylic will be the second new term for magic in paints. This can be a plastic-in-water. Solid acrylic you understand as the beautiful, glasslike Plexiglas and Lucite.

Inside the house is where acrylic shines. It dries quicker than other types, and it keeps its color better, without yellowing. One disadvantage: It costs more.

Some acrylics are also recommended for exteriors (in the same kinds of materials as vinyl paints). Here it possesses a big advantage - you don't need to pick your painting weather so carefully. It is usually applied on humid days and in cold seasons, providing that the temperature is a number of degrees above freezing.

Alkyd is an old interior paint made newly popular by the change in solvent - a super-refined petroleum chemical which includes almost no odor. It isn't a water paint. You thin it and clean brushes with mineral spirits or turpentine, or, if you need to retain the odorless feature, with all the new odorless solvent. (Ask the paint-store man for only that, odorless solvent).

Alkyd has solid advantages overriding the slight cleanup in-convenience. It really is exceptionally tough and extremely resistant to scrubbing. It holds up well in the troublesome areas - trim, bathroom, kitchen. And it is easy to apply, creating a smooth, even finish free of streaks and brush marks.

The alkyds have little odor, but don't forget the solvent is a petroleum product as well as vapor is there in case you can't smell it. Celebrate you sick and it burns very easily, like the vapor of older paint solvents. So play safe: Keep windows open and make flames away.

The existing reliable are not to be overlooked either. Conventional oil paints is now had in deodorized version, made out of the same odorless solvent utilized in the alkyds. And oil paint has much in their favor. It is sold everywhere; its virtues and faults are well established through centuries of usage; it makes a tough film on just about any surface; it offers the highest color range; in fact it is often cheaper.

Water-thinned rubber-latex paint is an old reliable, even though it is only about 10 years old. It is the reason a big percentage of all paint sold and is still the most widely available of the easy-to-use finishes. One new type is often a combination vinyl-rubber paint that's said to do a better job on interiors than either vinyl or rubber alone given it dries faster, lasts longer and contains less sheen.

Paint Selection

Most paints are purchased ready-mixed but, in their selection, consideration needs to be given to the fact that surfaces vary within their adaptability to paint and atmospheric or another conditions having an adverse relation to paint performance. Beyond the normal weathering action of the weather, outside house paints are often exposed to other attacking elements, including corrosive fumes from factories or excessive amounts of wind-driven dust.

For localities where such conditions exist, self-cleaning paints needs to be selected. These paints are generally so designated about the label. Concrete, plaster, and metal surfaces each present special problems in painting. For example, paint for use on masonry or new plaster must be resistant to dampness and alkalies, and paints suited for steel must have rust-inhibitive properties.

Color - The paint makers are out to sell the lady of your home and color could be the come-on. They are tempting her using a kaleidoscope's variety; one firm offers more than 6,000 different shades.

Practically every manufacturer has a "color system," a fat book of color chips with instructions for duplicating each chip. This is achieved by intermixing cans of colored paint, by having a concentrated color with a can of white or colored paint, or by having concentrated color or colors to a can of neutral "base" paint. And then for those who don't want any guesswork there is the Color Carousel that mixes the paints in the store. Whatever the method, it feels right a range of colors such as no amateur painter has seen.


Paste paints, such as aluminum, resin-emulsion, and lead-in-oil, needs to be stirred with a stiff paddle and reduced to painting consistency together with the liquids recommended around the manufacturer's labels.

Paints in powdered form have to have the addition of a liquid to organize them for use. The manufacturer's directions for the amount of oil, varnish, water, or any other vehicle required must be followed.

"Boxing" is a good way of mixing paints. Since paint can be a mixture of solids and liquids, it is important that it be mixed thoroughly before using. To accomplish this, the greater portion of the liquid belongings in the can needs to be poured in a clean bucket somewhat bigger than the paint can. Then, having a stiff paddle, the settled pigment from the original container ought to be loosened and any lumps split up. After this, mix the fabric in the container thoroughly, by using a figure 8 motion, and follow with a lifting and beating motion. Continue stirring the mix vigorously while slowly adding the liquid which was previously poured off the top. Complete the mixing by pouring the paint from one container to another several times until the entire amount is of uniform consistency.

Paste and powder paints ought to be mixed in quantities sufficient for fast use only, as these materials often become unfit for application if allowed to stand for three or more hours.

If paints happen to be allowed to stand and hard lumps or skin have formed, your skin or scum should be removed, after which it the paint can be stirred and strained through screen wire or through a couple of thicknesses of cheesecloth.

If your desired shade isn't obtainable in custom-or ready-mixed paints, white paints may be tinted with colors-in-oil. To do this, mix the color-in-oil with a small amount of turpentine or mineral spirits and stir this in to the white paint, somewhat at a time. If a blended color is desired, multiple color may be added, for instance a chrome green and chrome yellow pigments to create a lettuce green shade.